Federal Register Notices 2016

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rules

Published 2016

Rules published in other years: 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 |  2011 

Publication Date Federal Register Citation Title of Federal Register

8/23/2016

81 FR 57451

Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List (final rule)

8/23/2016

81 FR 57505

Temporary Exports to Mexico Under License Exception TMP

8/19/2016

81 FR 55372

Temporary General License: Extension of Validity(final rule)

8/17/2016

81 FR 54721

Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR):Harmonization of the Destination Control Statements

8/8/2016

81 FR 52326

Amendment to the Export Administration Regulations To Add Targets for the Production of Tritium and Related Development and Production Technology to the List of 0Y521 Series (Interim Final Rule)

7/28/2016

81 FR 49517

Commerce Control List: Addition of Items Determined to No Longer Warrant Control under United States Munitions List Category XIV (Toxicological Agents) or Category XVIII (Directed Energy Weapons)

7/11/2016

81 FR 44770

Updated Statements of Legal Authority for the Export Administration Regulations

6/28/2016

81 FR 41799

Temporary General License: Extension of Validity

6/23/2016

81 FR 40783

Amendments to Existing Validated End-User Authorization in the People's Republic of China: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (final rule)

6/22/2016

81 FR 40499

Guidance on Charging and Penalty Determinations in Settlement of Administrative Enforcement Cases

6/21/2016

81 FR 40174

Addition of Certain Persons and Removal of Certain Persons from the Entity List

6/21/2016

81 FR 40169

Revisions to the Unverified List (UVL)

6/7/2016

81 FR 36481

Amendment to the Export Administration Regulations: Removal of Special Iraq Reconstruction License

6/7/2016

81 FR 36458

Implementation of the February 2015 Australia Group (AG) Intersessional Decisions and the June 2015 AG Plenary Understandings

6/3/2016

81 FR 35586

Revisions to Definitions in the Export Administration Regulations

5/12/2016

81 FR 29483

Removal of Short Supply License Requirements on Exports of Crude Oil

4/4/2016

81 FR 19026

Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations Based on the 2015 Missile Technology Control Regime Plenary Agreements

3/24/2016

81 FR 15633

Temporary General License

3/21/2016

81 FR 14953

Addition of Certain Persons and Modification of Certain Entries to the Entity List; and Removal of Certain Persons from the Entity List

3/16/2016

81 FR 13972

Cuba Licensing Policy Revisions

3/8/2016

81 FR 12004

Additions to the Entity List

2/29/2016

81 FR 10083

Updated Legal Authority Citations

2/23/2016

81 FR 8825

Addition of Certain Persons and Modification of Certain Entries to the Entity List; and Removal of Certain Persons from the Entity List

2/19/2016

81 FR 8421

Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Fire Control, Laser, Imaging, and Guidance and Control Equipment the President Determines No Longer Warrant Control Under the United States Munitions List (USML)

2/9/2016

81 FR 6791

Clarifications and Revisions to Military Aircraft, Gas Turbine Engines and Related Items License Requirements

1/27/2016

81 FR 4580

Cuba Licensing Policy Revisions

 


81 FR 57451
08/23/2016

Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List

This final rule amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by adding ten persons under fourteen entries to the Entity List.  The ten persons who are added to the Entity List have been determined by the U.S. Government to be acting contrary to the national security or foreign policy interests of the United States.  These ten persons will be listed on the Entity List under the destinations of Iraq, the Philippines, Syria, and Turkey.

BIS final rule


15 CFR Part 740
08/23/2016

Temporary Exports to Mexico Under License Exception TMP

This proposed rule would align the time limit of License Exception Temporary Imports, Exports, Reexports, and Transfers (in-country) (TMP), which authorizes, among other things, certain temporary exports to Mexico, with the time limit of Mexico’s Decree for the Promotion of Manufacturing, Maquiladora and Export Services (IMMEX) program.  Currently, TMP allows for the temporary export and reexport of various items subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), as long as the items are returned no later than one year after export, reexport, or transfer if not consumed or destroyed during the period of authorized use.  Other than a four-year period for certain personal protective equipment, the one-year limit extends to all items shipped under license exception TMP.  However, the one-year period does not align with the time constraints of Mexico’s IMMEX program, which allows imports of items for manufacturing operations on a time limit that may exceed 18 months.  This rule proposes to amend TMP to complement the timeline of the IMMEX program.  Under this proposed amendment, items temporarily exported or reexported under license exception TMP and imported under the provisions of the IMMEX program would be authorized to remain in Mexico for up to four years from the date of export or reexport.

DATES: Comments must be received by October 24, 2016.

BIS Rule


8/19/16
81 FR 55372

Temporary General License: Extension of Validity                                                                               
On March 24, 2016, the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) published a final rule, Temporary General License.  The March 24 final rule created a temporary general license that restored, for a specified time period, the licensing requirements and policies under the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) for exports, reexports, and transfers (in-country) as of March 7, 2016, to two entities (ZTE Corporation and ZTE Kangxun) that were added to the Entity List on March 8, 2016.  At this time, the U.S. Government has decided to extend the temporary general license until November 28, 2016.  In order to implement this decision, this final rule revises the temporary general license to remove the expiration date of August 30, 2016, and to substitute the date of November 28, 2016.  This final rule makes no other changes to the EAR.


BIS final rule


8/17/16
81 FR 54721

Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Harmonization of the Destination Control Statements
This final rule implements changes that were proposed on May 22, 2015, in a proposed rule entitled Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Harmonization of the Destination Control Statements.  This final rule revises the destination control statement in § 758.6 of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to harmonize the statement required for the export of items subject to the EAR with the destination control statement in § 123.9(b)(1) of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).  This final rule is published in conjunction with a Department of State, Directorate of Defense Trade Controls final rule revising § 123.9(b)(1) of the ITAR.  Both final rules are part of the President’s Export Control Reform Initiative. This final rule is also part of Commerce’s retrospective regulatory review plan under Executive Order (E.O.) 13563.

This rule is effective November 15, 2016.


BIS final rule
State final rule


8/8/16
81 FR 52326

Amendment to the Export Administration Regulations to Add Targets for the Production of Tritium and Related Development and Production Technology to the List of 0Y521 Series
In this interim final rule, the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to make certain items subject to the EAR and to impose on those items a license requirement for export and reexport to all destinations, except Canada.  Specifically, this rule classifies certain specified targets “specially designed” for the production of tritium and related “development” and “production” technology under Export Control Classification Numbers (ECCNs) 0A521 and 0E521, respectively, on the Commerce Control List (CCL).  As described in the final rule that established the 0Y521 series and that was published in the Federal Register on April 13, 2012, items are added to the 0Y521 series upon a determination by the Department of Commerce, with the concurrence of the Departments of Defense and State, and other agencies as appropriate, that the items should be controlled for export because the items provide at least a significant military or intelligence advantage to the United States or foreign policy reasons justify control.  In this matter, the Department of Energy also concurred in the control imposed.

Interim Final Rule


7/28/16
81 FR 49517


Commerce Control List: Addition of Items Determined to No Longer Warrant Control under United States Munitions List Category XIV (Toxicological Agents) or Category XVIII (Directed Energy Weapons)
This final rule indicates how articles the President has determined no longer warrant control under Category XIV (Toxicological Agents, Including Chemical Agents, Biological Agents, and Associated Equipment) or Category XVIII (Directed Energy Weapons) of the United States Munitions List (USML) will be controlled under the Commerce Control List (CCL) once this rule becomes effective on December 31, 2016. The affected Category XIV articles consist primarily of dissemination, detection and protection “equipment” and related articles and will be controlled under new Export Control Classification Numbers (ECCNs) 1A607, 1B607, 1C607, 1D607, and 1E607, as described in this final rule. The affected Category XVIII articles consist primarily of tooling, production “equipment,” test and evaluation “equipment,” test models and related articles and will be controlled under new ECCNs 6B619, 6D619 and 6E619, as described in this final rule. This final rule was published in conjunction with a final rule from the Department of State, Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, which amends the list of articles controlled by USML Categories XIV and XVIII and which also becomes effective on December 31, 2016 (see 81 FR 49531).

BIS Final Rule State Rule


7/11/16
81 FR 44770


Updated Statements of Legal Authority for the Export Administration Regulations
This rule updates the authority citations for parts 730, 736 and 746 of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to cite the President’s Notice of May 3, 2016, 81 FR 27293 (May 5, 2016), which continues the emergency declared in Executive Order 13338 of May 11, 2004 — Blocking Property of Certain Persons and Prohibiting the Export of Certain Goods to Syria.  This rule also removes the citation to 30 U.S.C. 185(s), 185(u) from part 738 of the EAR because that citation is no longer needed due to the repeal certain export license requirements on crude oil exports.  This rule is purely procedural.  Its purpose is to keep the authority citation paragraphs in the Code of Federal Regulations current.  It does not change any right, prohibition or obligation that applies to any person under the EAR.

Final Rule




    

6/28/16
81 FR 41799


Temporary General License: Extension of Validity          
On March 24, 2016, the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) published a final rule, Temporary General License.  The March 24 final rule created a temporary general license that restored, for a specified time period, the licensing requirements and policies under the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) for exports, reexports, and transfers (in-country) as of March 7, 2016, to two entities (ZTE Corporation and ZTE Kangxun) that were added to the Entity List on March 8, 2016.  At this time, the U.S. Government has decided to extend the temporary general license until August 30, 2016.  In order to implement this decision, this final rule revises the temporary general license to remove the expiration date of June 30, 2016, and to substitute the date of August 30, 2016.  This final rule makes no other changes to the EAR.

Final Rule





6/23/16                                                                                                                                                                          

81 FR 40783

Amendments to Existing Validated End-User Authorization in the People’s Republic of China: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
In this rule, the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to revise the existing Validated End-User (VEU) list for the People’s Republic of China by updating the list of eligible items and destinations (facilities) for VEU Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD).  Specifically, BIS amends Supplement No. 7 to part 748 of the EAR to remove an existing “eligible destination” (facility); add a building to an existing address at one of AMD’s already approved facilities to which eligible items may be exported, reexported or transferred (in-country); and reflect the recent removal of an existing “eligible item” from the Commerce Control List (CCL).

Final Rule




6/22/16                                                                                                                                                                          

81 FR 40499

Guidance on Charging and Penalty Determinations in Settlement of Administrative Enforcement Cases
This rule revises the Bureau of Industry and Security’s (BIS) guidance regarding administrative enforcement cases based on violations of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), other than violations of Part 760 – restrictive trade practices and boycotts.  The rule sets forth the factors that the Office of Export Enforcement (OEE) considers when setting penalties in settlements of administrative enforcement cases and when deciding whether to pursue administrative charges or settle allegations of EAR violations.  This rule is effective on July 22, 2016.

BIS Final Rule




6/21/16                                                                                                                                                                          
81 FR 40174


Addition of Certain Persons and Removal of Certain Persons from the Entity List
This final rule amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by adding twenty-eight persons under thirty-one entries to the Entity List.  The twenty-eight persons who are added to the Entity List have been determined by the U.S. Government to be acting contrary to the national security or foreign policy interests of the United States.  These twenty-eight persons will be listed on the Entity List under the destinations of Afghanistan, Austria, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Israel, Panama, Taiwan, and the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.).  This final rule also removes three entities from the Entity List under the destinations of Finland, Pakistan and Turkey as the result of requests for removal received by BIS pursuant to the section of the EAR used for requesting removal or modification of an Entity List entity and the End-User Review Committee’s (ERC) review of the information provided in the removal requests.

BIS Final Rule




06/21/16

81 FR 40169

Revisions to the Unverified List (UVL)
The Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) is amending the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by adding thirty-six (36) persons to the Unverified List (the ‘‘Unverified List’’ or UVL), and adding an additional address for one (1) person currently listed on the UVL.  The 36 persons are being added to the UVL on the basis that BIS could not verify their bona fides because an end-use check could not be completed satisfactorily for reasons outside the U.S. Government’s control.  A new address is added for one current UVL person as BIS has determined that this person has changed its registered address.

BIS Final Rule




6/7/16
81 FR 36481

Amendment to the Export Administration Regulations: Removal of Special Iraq Reconstruction License


In this rule, the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) proposes to amend the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to remove the Special Iraq Reconstruction License (SIRL) from the EAR.  The action, if published in final form, would further the objectives of the Retrospective Regulatory Review Initiative that directs BIS and other federal agencies to streamline regulations and reduce unnecessary regulatory burdens on the public.  Specifically, the SIRL is outdated and seldom used by exporters, who now have more efficient options for exports and reexports to Iraq and transfers (in-country) in Iraq.  This rule also makes conforming changes. Comments on this proposed rule must be received by July 7, 2016.

BIS Rule




6/7/2016
81 FR 36458

Implementation of the February 2015 Australia Group (AG) Intersessional Decisions and the June 2015 AG Plenary Understandings

This final rule amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to implement the recommendations presented at the Australia Group (AG) Intersessional meeting held in The Hague, Netherlands, on February 4, 2015, and adopted pursuant to the AG silent approval procedure in April 2015, and the understandings reached at the AG Plenary meeting held in Perth, Australia, from June 1-5, 2015.  Specifically, this rule amends ECCN 1C350.d to reflect the addition of the chemical diethylamine (C.A.S. 109-89-7) to the AG’s “Chemical Weapons Precursors” common control list.  This rule also amends ECCN 1C351 to reflect the addition of two viruses (severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, a.k.a. SARS-related coronavirus, and reconstructed 1918 influenza virus) not previously identified on the AG “List of Human and Animal Pathogens and Toxins for Export Control.”  In addition, this rule amends ECCN 2B352 to revise the controls applicable to the following items:   steam, gas or vapor sterilizable freeze-drying equipment in 2B352.e; biocontainment chambers, isolators, and biological safety cabinets in 2B352.g.2; and aerosol inhalation equipment in 2B352.h.  This rule makes additional AG-related changes consistent with the scope of the AG common control lists.

BIS Rule




6/3/16
81 FR 35586


Revisions to Definitions in the Export Administration Regulations

This final rule makes revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to include certain definitions to enhance clarity and consistency with terms also found in the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), which is administered by the Department of State, Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC), or that DDTC expects to publish in proposed rules.  This final rule also revises the Scope part of the EAR to update and clarify application of controls to electronically transmitted and stored technology and software, including by way of cloud computing. DDTC is concurrently publishing comparable amendments to certain ITAR definitions for the same reasons.  An additional document addresses frequently asked questions (FAQs).

BIS Rule
State Department Rule
Frequently Asked Questions



 

5/12/16
81 FR 29483

Removal of Short Supply License Requirements on Exports of Crude Oil


This rule amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to remove the short supply license requirements that, prior to the entry into force of the “Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016” (Pub. L. 114-113) on December 18, 2015, applied to exports of crude oil from the United States.  Specifically, this rule removes the Commerce Control List (CCL) entry and the corresponding short supply provisions in part 754 of the EAR that required a license from BIS to export crude oil from the United States.  This rule also makes conforming changes to certain other EAR provisions to reflect the removal of these short supply license requirements.  Consistent with the exceptions in Pub. L. 114-113, exports of crude oil continue to require authorization from BIS to embargoed or sanctioned countries or persons and to persons subject to a denial of export privileges.

BIS Final Rule

 



4/2/16
81 FR 1902

Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations Based on the 2015 Missile Technology Control Regime Plenary Agreements


This final rule amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to reflect changes to the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) Annex that were agreed to by MTCR member countries at the October 2015 Plenary in Rotterdam, Netherlands, and the April 2015 Technical Experts Meeting (TEM) in Bern, Switzerland.  This final rule makes conforming changes to correlate the Commerce Control List (CCL) (Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 of the EAR) and other EAR provisions with the current MTCR Annex.  This final rule revises six Export Control Classification Numbers (ECCNs) to implement the changes that were agreed to at the meetings and to better align the MT controls on the CCL with the MTCR Annex.  In addition, this final rule makes a change to MT licensing policy to be consistent with the MTCR Annex General Minimum Software Note and the MTCR Annex General Technology Note that specify that a license for MT controlled items should also authorize certain minimum “software” and “technology.”  This final rule also adds a new paragraph to the section of the EAR that specifies which changes to a license are considered “non-material.”  This amendment will facilitate this rule’s revised MT licensing policy, which will apply to all licenses for MT controlled items, except when excluded by a license condition.

Final Rule

 



3/24/16
81 FR 15633

Temporary General License

This final rule amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by adding Supplement No. 7 to Part 744 to the EAR to create a temporary general license to specify that “notwithstanding the requirements and other provisions of Supplement No. 4 to part 744, which became effective on March 8, 2016, the licensing and other requirements in the EAR as of March 7, 2016, pertaining to exports, reexports, and transfers (in-country) of items “subject to the EAR” to Zhongxing Telecommunications Equipment (ZTE) Corporation, ZTE Plaza, Keji Road South, Hi-Tech Industrial Park, Nanshan District, Shenzhen, China, and ZTE Kangxun Telecommunications Ltd., 2/3 Floor, Suite A, ZTE Communication Mansion Keji (S) Road, Hi-New Shenzhen, 518057 China, are restored as of March 24, 2016 and through June 30, 2016.  Thus, for example, the authority of NLR or a License Exception that was available as of March 7, 2016, may be used as per this temporary general license.  The temporary general license is renewable if the U.S. Government determines, in its sole discretion, that ZTE Corporation and ZTE Kangxun are timely performing their undertakings to the U.S. Government and otherwise cooperating with the U.S. Government in resolving the matter.”

BIS Rule


3/21/16
81 FR 14953

Addition of Certain Persons and Modification of Certain Entries to the Entity List; and Removal of Certain Persons from the Entity List

This rule amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by adding forty-four persons under forty-nine entries to the Entity List.  The forty-four persons who are added to the Entity List have been determined by the U.S. Government to be acting contrary to the national security or foreign policy interests of the United States.  These forty-four persons will be listed on the Entity List under the destinations of China, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Iran, Malaysia, the Netherlands, Singapore, Switzerland, and the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.). This final rule also removes five entities from the Entity List under the destinations of Ukraine and the U.A.E., as the result of requests for removal received by BIS, a review of information provided in the removal requests in accordance with the procedure for requesting removal or modification of an Entity List entity and further review conducted by the End-User Review Committee (ERC). Finally, this final rule modifies two existing entries in the Entity List, both under the destination of China. These entries are being modified to reflect additional aliases and addresses for these persons. BIS implements this rule to protect U.S. national security or foreign policy interests and to ensure entries on the Entity List are accurate and up-to-date.

BIS Rule

 


3/16/16
81 FR 13972

Cuba Licensing Policy Revisions

This rule revises the EAR to allow cargo on a vessel that is on temporary sojourn to Cuba to transit Cuba on that vessel under a license exception.  It also allows license exception shipment of EAR99 items and items controlled for antiterrorism reasons only to persons authorized by the Office of Foreign Assets Control to establish and maintain a physical or business presence in Cuba.  Finally, it adopts a policy of case-by-case review for items that would enable or facilitate exports from Cuba of items produced by the private sector.  This rule was published simultaneously with a Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control rule that amended the Cuban Assets Control Regulations.

BIS Rule Treasury Rule


3/8/16
81 FR 12004

Additions to the Entity List (Final Rule)

This final rule amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by adding four entities to the Entity List.  The U.S. Government has determined that the four entities are acting contrary to the national security or foreign policy interests of the United States.  The four entities will be listed on the Entity List under the destinations of People’s Republic of China (China) and Iran.

Entity List Rule



2/29/16
81 FR 10083

Updated Legal Authority Citations

This rule updates the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) legal authority citations in the National Security Industrial Base Regulations (NSIBR) and the Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The updates reflect recent editorial reclassifications within the United States Code, the repeal of certain statutory authorities, the continuation of an emergency declared in an executive order, and minor stylistic edits.  This is a non-substantive rule that only updates legal authority paragraphs of the NSIBR and the EAR.  It does not alter any right, obligation or prohibition that applies to any person under the NSIBR or the EAR.

PDF Format



2/23/16
81 FR 8825

Addition of Certain Persons and Modification of Certain Entries to the Entity List; and Removal of Certain Persons from the Entity List

This rule amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by adding eight persons under eight entries to the Entity List.  The eight persons who are added to the Entity List have been determined by the U.S. Government to be acting contrary to the national security or foreign policy interests of the United States.  These eight persons will be listed on the Entity List under the destination of the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.).  This final rule also removes nine persons from the Entity List, as the result of a request for removal submitted by these persons, a review of information provided in the removal request in accordance with the procedure for requesting removal or modification of an Entity List entity and further review conducted by the End-User Review Committee (ERC). Finally, this rule is also revising six existing entries in the Entity List.  One entry under Iran is modified to correct the entry by updating the Federal Register citation.  Five entries on the Entity List under the destinations of Armenia, Greece, India, Pakistan and the United Kingdom (U.K.) are modified to reflect a removal from the Entity List.

Entity List Rule


2/19/16
81 FR 8421

Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Fire Control, Laser, Imaging, and Guidance and Control Equipment the President Determines No Longer Warrant Control Under the United States Munitions List (USML)

This proposed rule describes how articles the President determines no longer warrant control under Category XII (Fire Control, Laser, Imaging, and Guidance and Control Equipment) of the United States Munitions List (USML) of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) would be controlled under the Commerce Control List (CCL) of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by amending Export Control Classification Number (ECCN) 7A611 and creating new “600 series” ECCNs 7B611, 7D611, and 7E611.  In addition, for certain dual-use infrared detection items, this proposed rule would expand controls for certain software and technology, eliminate the use of some license exceptions, revise licensing policy, and expand license requirements for certain transactions involving military end users or foreign military commodities.  This proposed rule would also harmonize provisions within the EAR by revising controls related to certain quartz rate sensors and uncooled thermal imaging cameras.

BIS Rule State Rule

 


2/9/16
81 FR 6791

Clarifications and Revisions to Military Aircraft, Gas Turbine Engines and Related Items License Requirements

This proposed rule would add clarifying text to the descriptions of the types of military aircraft controlled on the Commerce Control List.  The lists of items that are subject only to the anti-terrorism reason for control would be clarified and expanded.  This proposed rule was published simultaneously with a Department of State proposed rule that would make related changes to Categories VIII and XIX of the United States Munitions List.  Comments on these proposed rules are due no later than March 25, 2016.

BIS Rule State Rule

 


  

1/27/16
81 FR 4580

Cuba Licensing Policy Revisions

This amends the general policy of denial that applies applications for licenses to export or reexport to Cuba.  It provides a general policy of approval for five types of transactions and a policy of case-by-case review for items to meets the needs of the Cuban people even in instances where the Cuban government is the consignee.  This rule does not make any changes to license requirements or to license exception availability.  It was published simultaneously with a Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control rule that amended the Cuban Assets Control Regulations.

BIS Rule Treasury Rule

 

Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Harmonization of the Destination Control Statements