Investigations of the Effects of Imports on National
These unique defense industry reports are the result of formal U.S.
Government investigations of the effects of imports on U.S. national
security. Typically such investigations are initiated at the request
These studies, known as "232s," for Section 232 of the Trade Expansion
Act of 1962, as amended, are similar to our Defense
Industrial Capability and Technology Assessments, as a
survey is devised and data collected from the industrial sector in
The final report, which includes findings and recommendations, is submitted
to the President no later than 270 days after the date of initiation.
Should the assessment determine that imports threaten to impact U.S.
national security, the President then has 90 days to determine whether
to use his Section 232 statutory authority to "adjust imports."
We have conducted a number of Section 232 investigations resulting in
Presidential action such as negotiating voluntary restraint agreements
with Japan and Taiwan for machine tools, imposing "Buy America" restrictions
for military-use antifriction bearings, and most recently, authorizing
a $30 million collaborative research and development initiative between
the domestic ceramic packaging industry and the Department of Defense's
Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).
Click on the topics of our investigations for more information on each.
Interested in our other, Defense
Industrial Capability and Technology Assessments?
Want to learn more about Section 232 investigations?
Download a Section 232 booklet in Adobe Acrobat format, which provides
an explanation of the law and regulations, as well as provides a brief
history of every case conducted under this authority. For more information
or to request a copy, contact Brad Botwin at 202-482-4060 or by
Iron Ore and Semi-Finished
The Effect of Imports
of Crude Oil on National Security (1999)
(PDF: full study)
Crude Oil/Petrol Products (1994)
Injection Molding (1989)